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In Moderna’s study, 10.2% of trial participants were Black, 20.5% of them Hispanic, 4.6% of them Asian, and 5.2% Other non-white or multiracial. 37.2% combined were People of Color. In Pfizer’s study, 9.8% of trial participants were Black, 26.2% of them Hispanic, 4.4% of them Asian, and 3.3% other non-white or multiracial. Find further vaccine trial demographics in the FDA reports for Moderna and Pfizer.

Several sources provide good summaries of COVID vaccine rates, nationally, and by locality and group: Bloomberg COVID Tracker & CDC Vaccines Page are two of the best.


Americans are taking the opportunity to get vaccinated in record numbers, especially after FDA gave full approval to vaccines. Every day, about 1 million are vaccinated against COVID-19.The CDC Vaccines Page updates this count daily

Over 250,000 people participated in vaccine trials worldwide with American Phase 3 trials having enrolled just shy of 200,000.* 

Pfizer/Biontech: 44K

Moderna: 30K

AstraZenica: 30K

Johnson&Johnson: 60K

Novavax: 30K

​Worldwide trial counts:  Bloomberg COVID Tracker

*These stats do not include Russian and Chinese vaccines, which are not being used and do not require the same level of scientific review and testing before being authorized for use.

The COVID vaccines combine for the largest trials by far in recent years. See participant totals from all vaccine developers. 

*Testing for the first Polio vaccine was conducted on a larger population because Polio infection rates were so much lower (to demonstrate a vaccine works, researchers need to vaccinate enough people that they can be sure some would have gotten sick without the vaccine–so lower infection rates require larger populations), but that vaccine has since been replaced.

Because of institutionalized racism’s impact on healthcare access and other general socioeconomic constraints, Black, Hispanic, Asian, Native American and other racial and ethnic minorities have been consistently underrepresented in clinical trials. The COVID pandemic has impacted these groups disproportionately and raised awareness—and created a sense of urgency—about the need to include them in clinical trials. This context made vaccine developers focus on recruiting representative population samples for their studies in order to make sure the vaccine would work for everyone. Both Pfizer and Moderna achieved sample populations that reflected the adult United States’ population demographics. Over a third of vaccine participants were People of Color; 10% of the Black and 20% of them Hispanic.

According to a CDC study that reviewed COVID-19 hospitalizations from January 2021 to June 2021, unvaccinated people are 17x more likely to be hospitalized for COVID-19 than vaccinated people. On behalf of the CDC, Dr. Fauci announced that 99% of all COVID-19 related deaths were among unvaccinated people.

The Delta variant is 2x more contagious than the original strain of coronavirus. According to the latest research by the CDC, the delta variant is most likely to spread among unvaccinated people. Fully vaccinated people get COVID-19 less often than unvaccinated people. Vaccinated people are also contagious for less time than unvaccinated people

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